Organic CBD OIL (Cannabidiol)
High Strength Herbal CBD as a Food Oil
Here in the UK and in many other countries around the world CBD oil is classified as a food. Our CBD Oil is mixed with hemp seed and MCT oil for quick absorption when consumed. Therefore it is regarded as a food, not a novel (untested) food by UK and EU.
Our products originate from a licensed farm from organic European hemp plants (it is a hybrid of original species Cannabis sativa). Our CBD oil is extracted by a super critical CO2 process of the whole plant leaf, flower and bud and is put through regular testing to achieve the highest potency and purity. The information given here is for interest only and is not to be used for diagnosis or as a recommendation for treatment.
Because quality matters, Herbactive make plants work.
“I bought from you last time is 20% cbd with .75 THC I believe. I find it’s brilliant for the pain I get in the replacement hip area which can be excruciating at times… Thanks so much. Susan W”
Disclaimer cont. Our CBD Oil is not a medicinal product. It cannot be used to treat any illness or ailment whether of body or mind, nor can it be so used to prevent such conditions. It is an unlicensed product as are all my tonics and herbal products which come under the same application. There is neither UK or EU legislation for any of these products. There is a lot of evidence about the action of this and other herbal plant species which may be found from outside sources and journals but we do not hold any such evidence about our Herbactive products and therefore make no claims about their efficacy or treatment value for any condition of the body or mind.
Alan N. Hopking is a health practitioner, a qualified Medical Herbalist, and a member of the National Institute of Medical Herbalist since 1981, and therefore he is legally permitted to diagnose and treat patients with herbal medicines.
Hi Alan, I just wanted to tell you that before I found you did CBD Oil that I tried two different US companies, both of which I found OK, then I tried a UK company which I found not so good. I then tried your 20% oil and found it to be definitely the one that had the best effect for my needs. I think that your prices are competitive too. And being able to speak to you and know that your CBD hemp hybrid is grown organically also makes a difference. Thanks again for a great product. I use it all the time now. John. Bristol.
Thank you so much for prompt dispatch of the products I ordered. I am very appreciative of your knowledge and professionalism.
The tonics arrived yesterday – Black Salve and Personal Tonic – and I started on the personal tonic immediately. I also started using the 20% oil and have found to my relief that it works – so many others haven’t.
Thanking you, MT
Full-spectrum Cannabinoid Extract
The entourage effect: Apart from the full-spectrum cannabinoids found in Herbactive CBD Oil (see a complete list below) there are many other natural constituents which are found in our whole organic CBD oil and tincture. These include: Vitamins, Glycosides, Flavanoids, Alkanes, Aldehydes, Nitrogenous compounds, Terpenes, Amino acids, Oils, Alcohols, Ketones, Sugars, Pigments, Water, and loads of micronutrients.
Hi Alan, First week of taking your 5% CBD Oil is showing good signs. Hoping this is the missing link for me. Karen. London.
What Is CBD?
Our CBD is a whole oil extract from an organic whole herb plant Cannabis sativa strain (hybrid hemp) (where the THC has been horticulturally reduced to below 0.2%) and is part of the huge range of herbal medicines available at Herbactive Health Clinic. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a fatty acid that comes from the hemp plant. CBD oil is a mixture of various natural substances as they are derived from hemp. Hemp (also known as agricultural hemp, industrial hemp) is cultivated for use as rope, paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, construction (e.g. Hempcrete and insulation), bio-fuel, cosmetics, oil, health food. This hybrid grows up to 15 feet (5m) high with a bamboo-like stem and looks completely different to the marijuana plant which is only 5 feet (1.7m) in height and bushy. They both come from the Cannabis sativa L. plant, but the hemp hybrid Herbactive uses has just a trace of the psychoactive constituent (THC) found in the marijuana plant. It is specifically cultivated for its very high therapeutically-active CBD content.
The production of hemp oil involves extracting the fatty acids from the hemp plant. Cannabinoids are fat-soluble so they come out of the plant via oil extraction. As our cannabis strain is naturally high in CBD and contains only traces of THC (the chemical that give the high), the CBD oil produced from it is safe and non-psychotropic. Herbactive has sourced a high CBD hemp oil from a breed that has been developed over many years and is cultivated with licensed EU farmers. Our CBD oils and products do not have any psychoactive effects and are used entirely for general health purposes under UK law. Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of at least 120 active cannabinoids identified in cannabis. CBD is considered to have a wide scope of potential medical applications with no side effects.
It is also notable that humans make certain cannabinoids in our bodies which are activated to counteract pain and also to restore health during illness.
“The ABC powder is so helpful and my mum is so looking forward to trying the tonic! I too love the ABC very much, even in such a short time I can feel the benefit and so can mum, it’s marvellous and a great credit to you. The CBD oil is wonderful too, again, the benefits are beyond what I could have imagined. I am managing to get some quality sleep for the first time in years. I also have much less pain throughout the body, and in such a short time. I am beyond grateful. We feel truly Blessed to have these wonderful herbs and oil … and you! I am passing the word re your wonderful company on to others, including my TCM acupuncture therapist.” Rita S. UK
Constituents in CBD Oil
Our CBD Oil contains well over a hundred different phytocannabinoids, most notably cannabidiol (CBD), CBC, CBG, CBN, trace (legal) amounts of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and probably others yet to be identified. In addition to the phytocannabinoids present in our whole hemp plant extracts, there are also many other types of natural molecules and phytochemical compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (including B1, B2, B6, D, & E), fatty acids (including omega 3 & 6), trace minerals (including iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, & potassium), carotene, chlorophyll, flavonoids, ketones, nitrogenous compounds, alkanes, alcohols, glycosides, pigments, hemp seed oil, nutrients, water, and terpenes. The most common terpenes in our CBD oils are myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, terpinolene, linalool, alpha-Pinene, beta-pinene, nerolidol or phytol, trans-alpha-bergamotene, limonene/beta-phellandrene (co-elution), alpha-humulene, (E)-beta-farnesene, and delta-3-Carene.
Oxford University Research Programme
Oxford University has announced a new £10m research programme into the medical uses of the cannabinoids in cannabis. Scientists will explore the potential benefits of the compounds in cannabis in an attempt to create new treatments for conditions including pain, cancer and inflammatory diseases. Zameel Cader, associate professor in clinical neurosciences, said the use of cannabis compounds was an “area of huge untapped potential”. Dr Cader said the research would focus on an area of the brain known as the endocannabinoid system which plays a role in mood, memory and the sensation of pain. The endocannabinoid system is complex and “impacts on many aspects of brain function and the way that synapses operate”, said Dr Cader. “It’s also really important in the way the immune response is governed. We know that it’s particularly important for many neurological disorders.”
“The research programme will develop results into innovative therapies designed to help improve the quality of life of millions of patients,” said the University spokesman. Researchers “will seek to identify cutting edge medical therapies through research into the molecular, cellular and systems mechanisms of cannabinoids,” it said. It will include study of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, migraine, auism and epilepsy.
“There are [approaching 120] different cannabinoids, most of which we don’t know what their actions are,” Dr Cader said.
With thanks to The Independant, UK national newspaper, online; edited. June 2017.
Hi Alan, I’m in my late 40s and I have always jogged almost every day. I can jog for long distances. But recently my recovery time has been slower; my joints and muscles ache as I’ve never known. And for some reason my sleep has been affected. I read about your CBD Oil on your website. So I decided to try your 3% CBD oil. I took just 3-5 drops a day. Within a week I was feeling better and sleeping better. My recovery is much quicker and I don’t get joint and muscle ache like I used to. Thanks for that and I will continue on this low dose because it seems to do me a lot of good! Jim. Christchurch, Dorset.
What is CBD used for?
The National Cancer Institute (USA) website states: The potential benefits of medicinal Cannabis for people living with cancer include antiemetic effects, appetite stimulation, pain relief, and improved sleep…for symptom management.
It is said to be neuroprotectant, an antioxidant, an analgesic (pain relief), an anxiolytic (anxiety, stress, panic), and early research suggests it may stop tumours from spreading.
One science paper (Journal of Cancer Research 2004:08:15) says that cannabinoids could stop the action of VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) which is used by cancer tumours to stimulate blood vessel growth to spread. There is a huge body of research that claims that cannabinoids may cause antitumour effects by induction of cell death, (called apoptosis), inhibition of cancer cell growth, and inhibition of tumour angiogenesis (blood vessel development to spread abnormal cell invasion) and metastasis, and that they appear to kill tumour cells but do not affect surrounding healthy cells.
NB Herbactive does not prescribe CBD Oil to treat any cancer. CBD Oil may only be used as a health supplement as a preventative against the development of rogue cells and their spread in the body. Alan Hopking, herbal practitioner, cannot advise anyone about the treatment of cancer. His advice is for maintenance of health to avoid illnesses and serious disease. We prescribe this herbal medicine to help as a preventative only.
For the last 6 weeks I’ve been giving 5 drops of your CBD Oil to my husband who suffered a stroke which affected his speech. I’m really amazed that he is speaking better, more clearly and using longer sentences recently. This change is very noticeable to me. I’m really pleased of course and thank you for all your advice and directions of the use of this remarkable oil about which we have all heard so much over the years. M.J. Dorset.
Research also showed that CBD acted by blocking a gene responsible for metastases (the Id-1 gene) which causes aggressive movement of abnormal cells away from a tumour site. This was shown in trials with both brain tumours and breast tumours.
In summary, research shows that CBD is indicated for: Pain relief. Nausea. Seizures. Anxiety, stress, worry. Depression. Muscle relaxant. Antimicrobial. Antibacterial. Protects the nervous system. Anti-diabetic (improves the action of the pancreas on insulin). Improves blood circulation (enhances wound healing; reduces cold hands & feet). Improves psoriasis and other skin diseases. Relieves Crohn’s disease, diverticulitis, and IBS. Anti-inflammatory. Bone stimulant (helps osteoporosis and painful bones). Arthritis. Antioxidant.
The cannabinoids are also known as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic events, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as MS, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia.
In a study published in the journal Nature Medicine investigating the brain systems involved in the ageing process led by Andras Bilkei-Gorzo from the University of Bonn, Germany, to show that the brain’s endocannabinoid system, which affects mood memory and sensations such as pain, and which actively declines with age, “can restore signalling to a normal level” and “restore the cognitive ability of the old” when given a low dose of a compound of CBD/THC oil, and improves learning and memory. This system did not respond as well when not give the compound. Michael Bloomfield from University College London, said the “well conducted” study was “exciting” as it “opens up a whole new chemical system called the endocannabinoid system, as a potential target for new avenues of research which could include illnesses like dementia.”
Cannabis CBD has been found to help carpel tunnel. Diluted drops of the tincture has been found to help glaucoma.
People with PTSD (or PTS syndrome) respond well to CBD treatment according to our US colleagues. People who have a strong tendency to aboid crowds or other people, who have repetitive stress, who are hypersensitive, with stress, anxiety with all kinds of causes (not only conflict and war), CBD will help their sleep and reduce nightmares and terrible recurrent thoughts. Al Bryne LCSR says that CBD can help to replace opiods and other drugs, slow the transmission of frontal brain stress ie a racing mind, quick anger, night terrors.
Tincture of cannabis (our high CBD strain) is very useful for faster release into the blood stream. It is recommended to put the dose in a little water and hold it in your mouth for up to 5 minutes (ref. Magnolia Wellness Center, USA). It lasts at least 2 hours, depending on the dose and requirement. But, as stated elsewhere, it is usually better to take smaller doses more often to increase the overall effect. Dose can be as low as 5 drops, or up to half a teaspoon, every 2-3 hours. Ask Alan Hopking, Herbactive Herbal Practitioner, for advice. Unlike other herbal tonics which are taken by drinking down before meals, the CBD tincture is best held in the mouth and then swallowed.
Vaping with Volcano is said to give a stronger short term action. This vape is non-burning, non-combustible. It is said to just vaporise the constituents directly into the lungs. Good for pain and immediate action of the herb, but needs to be repeated more often than if taking the oil or tincture. NB if you feel ‘high’ when taking the CBD oil, as some sensitive people do, an antidote is to drink lemon juice.
Topicals (CBD oil or tincture as cream/ointment) can be successfully used for tendonitis, back pain, nerve pain. You can order these from Herbactive store. Or you can make/bake edibles (cookies) for slow release – buy the cannabis tea in our store (this tea is high CBD low THC or course). Eat the cookies with plenty of time between each otherwise you can get a cumulative effect which can make you feel nauseous. Only eat another cookie when the effect is showing signs it is wearing off.
With thanks to talks by the Sacred Plant Inc
Your CBD oil is magnificent Alan! Gratefull for all the good stuff that comes out of your loving intuitive and intelligent being.
CBD reduces high blood pressure
Oral CBD administration is associated with reduced blood pressure in healthy volunteers, according to clinical trial data published online in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. Investigators from the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom assessed the effects of a single oral dose of 600 mg of CBD extract versus placebo in nine male subjects. Cannabidiol administration reduced resting systolic blood pressure and stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction). Compared to placebo, CBD intake was associated with reduced BP levels following exercise and in response to stress. Increased heart rate was observed following CBD administration, but no “adverse events” were reported by participants either during or following the study sessions.
“Our data show that a single dose of CBD reduces resting blood pressure and the blood pressure response to stress, particularly cold stress, and especially in the post-test periods. This may reflect the anxiolytic and analgesic effects of CBD, as well as any potential direct cardiovascular effects. … Further research is also required to establish whether CBD has any role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders such as a hypertension.”
Report edited from article in the online Daily Chronical, June 2017.
Hello Alan. I started using your 20% CBD oil just over 6 months ago for a brain tumour. I also used your Skullcap tincture to help the pain. I refused surgery and chemo – I am too old for that and it went against my instincts. I have just had extensive brain scans from different angles to assess the progress of the tumour. They couldn’t find it!! The consultant had to admit that it had disappeared and that he couldn’t understand it. Obviously I was astounded and overjoyed. I will continue with your treatment of course. Thank you for all your help. Name withheld. UK
CBD/THC as Preventative
Cannabis therapeutic expert, Dr Dustin Sulak from USA, says that cannabis users (those who take CBD Oil) are “less likely to have arthritis, diabetes, cancer, sleep disorders, prepression, anxieity, and dementure”. He says that is is because the oil is an adaptogen, and so it adapts to help our system via our cannabinoid receptor sites.
Brett Sicklick, a US health professional, states that “the lower the dose of CBD the greater efficacy”, also that the use of cannabis tincture is highly effective because of the action of the cannabinoids and turpinoids. Dr Allan Frankel MD says that the preventive use of cannabis helps the heart and whole cardiovascular system. Dr David Beaman, who works in pain management, emphasises that “everyone should take up to 2.5mg of CBD per day, as it will restore homeostasis”. John Easterling agrees that “often only mcro amounts of CBD/THC are necessary to improve health and fight disease and abnormal cells. Long-term micro-dosing is often the best method of therapy. Tinctures can also be used very effectively (hold the dose in the mouth for increased efficacy). If the dose is sub-therapeutic (no evident response), the dose should be gradually increased, or the original dose should be taken more often. Dr Sulak states that “more is less”, i.e. if too much is taken the effect is not as great or as long as if a lower dose is taken. He says, find the dose that is right for you and stay on it. In fact, he continued, the lower the dose the more sensitive (responsive) you become to the CBD panacea of actions.
High spectrum CBD “is safe for everyone”. Older people are more sensitive to CBD and so it is recommended that they start will a low strength CBD (low dose of the 3%). CBD is claimed by these experts to repair abnormal functions in the body, and restore appetite. Herbactive CBD is made from whole leaves, flowers and tricomes of C. sativa, with a less than the legal limit of THC (>0.3%). This very low amount of THC and THCA and THCN amongst a lot of other constituents which combine to give the therapeutic effect are all that is necessary to switch on the CB1 receptor sites in the brain and body (CB2). Dr Sulak makes the point that whole plant extract oil and tincture (which Herbactive uses) are far better than market claims for isolated molecule extracts. The THC in the CBD oil act as catalysts for the CBD itself, say the scientists. It is also noteworthy that all animals have an endocannabinoid system just like us. Therefore, CBD treatment for animals is as effective as it is for us. However, to prescribe it for animals can only be done by vets who have a license.
With thanks to talks by the Sacred Plant Inc
How is CBD Hemp Oil made?
A lot of plant material and many steps are required to produce a comparatively very small amount of CBD oil. Herbactive uses a specifically developed organic hemp hybrid that has taken many years of dedicated cultivation to get it to this point where it has been licensed for agricultural cultivation and harvest for medicinal application. The extraction process is done with purity in mind and for the maximising of the CBDs in the oil, which is then extensively tested to ensure its quality.
How is CBD oil used?
Internal: The dose is usually 2-10 drops under the tongue 1-2 times daily (max daily dose 20 drops).
External: CBD Extract as a cream or lotion can be applied to the area of the pain e.g. joints, spine, muscles, tendons, etc. or applied to skin complaints e.g. psoriasis, dermatitis, wounds, acne, allergy rash, bites.
Strength of Herbactive Organic CBD Oil
3% with an entourage effect of 30mg CBD per ml. Sizes available 10ml (total CBD value 300mg) 30ml (total CBD value 900mg) 50ml (total CBD value 1500mg)
5% with an entourage effect of 50mg CBD per ml. Sizes available 10ml (total CBD value 500mg) 30ml (total CBD value 1500mg) 50ml (total CBD value 2500mg)
20% with an entourage effect of 200mg CBD per ml. Sizes available 10ml (total CBD value 2000mg) 30ml (total CBD value 6000mg) 50ml (total CBD value 10000mg)
The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has recently acknowledged that there are significant health benefits associated with CBD. However, as a result they have come to the opinion that products containing Cannabidiol (CBD) may require a product license to sell in the UK, if recommended for medical purposes. Herbactive, however, makes no such medical claims. Our CBD Oil is not sold as a medicine. Herbactive Organic CBD Hemp Oil product is a food supplement with the oil containing the whole range of naturally occurring cannabinoids and many other naturally occuring constituents found in the fresh plant (i.e. our CBD Oil is not an isolated or standardised extract of cannabinoids alone, created by hi-tech chemical extraction, synthesis or manufacture). Herbactive Hemp CBD Oil is extracted from the whole hemp plant and our products help maintain a person’s wellbeing by supporting the body’s natural endocannabinoid system.
We are committed to providing quality products to support people leading healthy lives. Herbactive was founded by Alan Hopking who is a passionate believer in natural health from herbs and organic foods and supplements. He is committed to publishing educational information about health and healthy lifestyle (with a bias towards herbs and herbalism!).
Chemistry and Diversity of the Hemp Cannabinoids
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain. Ligands for these receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by animals), the phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis and some other plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured artificially). The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another major constituent of the plant. There are at least 120 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis, exhibiting varied effects.
Synthetic cannabinoids encompass a variety of distinct chemical classes: the classical cannabinoids structurally related to THC, the nonclassical cannabinoids (cannabimimetics) including the aminoalkylindoles, 1,5-diarylpyrazoles, quinolines, and arylsulfonamides, as well as eicosanoids related to endocannabinoids.
Tetrahydrocannabinol- and Cannabinol-type THC, CBN
Main classes of natural cannabinoids
The bracts surrounding a cluster of Cannabis sativa flowers are coated with cannabinoid-laden trichomes
The classical cannabinoids are concentrated in a viscous resin produced in structures known as glandular trichomes. At least 113 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the Cannabis plant The best studied cannabinoids include tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN).
All classes derive from cannabigerol-type (CBG) compounds and differ mainly in the way this precursor is cyclized. The classical cannabinoids are derived from their respective 2-carboxylic acids (2-COOH) by decarboxylation (catalyzed by heat, light, or alkaline conditions).
THCA (Tetrahydrocannbinolic acid)
CBDA (Cannabidiolic Acid)
CBGM (Cannabigerol Monomethyl Ether)
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of the Cannabis plant. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, THC) and delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), through intracellular CB1 activation, induce anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesis produced naturally in the body and brain. These cannabinoids produce the effects associated with cannabis by binding to the CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is non-psychotropic. Recent evidence shows that the compound counteracts cognitive impairment associated with the use of cannabis. Cannabidiol has little affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors but acts as an indirect antagonist of cannabinoid agonists. It was found to be an antagonist at the putative new cannabinoid receptor, GPR55, a GPCR expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Cannabidiol has also been shown to act as a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. CBD can interfere with the uptake of adenosine, which plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer. It may play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal.
CBD shares a precursor with THC and is the main cannabinoid in CBD-dominant Cannabis strains. CBD has been shown to play a role in preventing the short-term memory loss associated with THC.
There is tentative evidence that CBD had an anti-psychotic effect, but research in this area is limited.
Cannabinol (CBN) is the primary product of THC degradation, and there is usually little of it in a fresh plant.CBN content increases as THC degrades in storage, and with exposure to light and air. It is only mildly psychoactive. Its affinity to the CB2 receptor is higher than for the CB1 receptor.
Cannabigerol (CBG) is non-psychoactive but still contributes to the overall effects of Cannabis. CBG has been shown to promote apoptosis in cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in mice. It acts as an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, and CB1 receptor antagonist. It also binds to the CB2 receptor.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is prevalent in certain central Asian and southern African strains of Cannabis. It is an antagonist of THC at CB1 receptors and attenuates the psychoactive effects of THC.
Although cannabidivarin (CBDV) is usually a minor constituent of the cannabinoid profile, enhanced levels of CBDV have been reported in feral cannabis plants from the northwest Himalayas, and in hashish from Nepal.
Cannabichromene (CBC) is non-psychoactive and does not affect the psychoactivity of THC. CBC has shown antitumor effects in breast cancer xenoplants in mice. More common in tropical cannabis varieties.
Cannabinoid production starts when an enzyme causes geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid to combine and form CBGA. Next, CBGA is independently converted to either CBG, THCA, CBDA or CBCA by four separate synthase, FAD-dependent dehydrogenase enzymes. There is no evidence for enzymatic conversion of CBDA or CBD to THCA or THC. For the propyl homologues (THCVA, CBDVA and CBCVA), there is an analogous pathway that is based on CBGVA from divarinolic acid instead of olivetolic acid.
Double bond position
In addition, each of the compounds above may be in different forms depending on the position of the double bond in the alicyclic carbon ring. There is potential for confusion because there are different numbering systems used to describe the position of this double bond. Under the dibenzopyran numbering system widely used today, the major form of THC is called Δ9-THC, while the minor form is called Δ8-THC. Under the alternate terpene numbering system, these same compounds are called Δ1-THC and Δ6-THC, respectively.
Adapted and Edited from Wikipedia – acknowledgements and thanks
OTHER PLANTS AND CANNABINOIDS
For years, it was thought that cannabis was the only plant capable of producing cannabinoids. However, in the last few years research has been published that shows that cannabis is not the only plant that produces these compounds, and that they are actually quite common!
What exactly is a cannabinoid?
Cannabinoids are lipid-based molecules that all act to some degree on the cannabinoid receptors, which are a primary component of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids are produced by plants (most famously, the cannabis plant), but are also produced by the bodies of humans and most other animal species, and can also be synthesized in laboratories.
Cannabinoids produced by plants are known as phytocannabinoids, those produced by the body are known as endocannabinoids, and lab-synthesized compounds are simply known as synthetic cannabinoids.
Primitive liverworts may contain substances related to THC (Apteryx australis). There is a plant known as the New Zealand liverwort, which produces an unusual type of cannabinoid (called perrottetinenic acid) that appears to be very closely related to THC, so much so that it may actually act on the CB1-receptor! If this is the case, it will be the only other known plant compound found in nature that is capable of doing so. However, whether or not this compound actually acts on the CB1-receptor is not yet known. But one thing we seem to know for sure: no other plant aside from cannabis produces THC.
Most cannabis enthusiasts will have heard of the classic cannabinoids such as THC, CBD, THCV and CBC, which for many years were thought to be the only compounds that acted on the cannabinoid receptors. The classic cannabinoids all share the same chemical formula, C21H30O2.
However, as our understanding of the endocannabinoid system has grown, we have found that the number and type of different compounds that act on the receptors is far larger.
Thus, we have to widen the goalposts somewhat as to what constitutes a cannabinoid—beyond the 120 or so classic cannabinoids, there are also an as-yet-undetermined number of related compounds, which also act on the receptors but do not share the classic structure.
And what on earth are cannabimimetics?
Helichrysum contains CBG or related compounds.
As well as cannabinoids, we also have an important class of non-classical cannabinoids known as cannabimimetics. They are called cannabimimetics as they literally mimic the biological activity of the classical cannabinoids, despite not sharing their structure.
Cannabimimetics are of increasing importance within the world of medicinal cannabinoid research. Classically, the EC system has been viewed as a simple set of two receptors and two ligands (a ligand is the term for a compound that binds to a receptor).
However, it is now increasingly being shown that the EC system is far more complex than this. Dozens of different compounds are now known to act either directly or indirectly on the EC system, and many of these compounds also work on other important biological messaging systems such as the opioid, serotonergic and dopaminergic signalling systems.
Some examples of known cannabimimetics:
NAE’s & N-alkylamides
N-acylethanolamines are a class of fatty acid compounds which are known to be heavily involved in biological signaling. NAE’s include N-arachidonoylethanolamine (better known as anandamide), N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), N-linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), and N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA).
NAE’s including OAE, PEA and LEA have been found to occur in many plant species. Notably, OAE and LEA have both been found in the cocoa plant, and black truffles have even been reported to contain anandamide itself! Lastly, the compounds known as N-alkylamides have been found in various echinacea species, and it is thought that echinacea’s importance in herbal medicine may derive from this fact.
Echinacea has been found to contain cannabimimetic N-alkyamides.
Anandamide is well known for being the biological compound which most closely resembles the activity of THC, as it directly agonizes the principal cannabinoid receptors. It is now also known that anandamide also directly agonizes a third cannabinoid receptor known as GPR119, which is also affected by N-oleoylethanolamine.
As well as directly acting on the principal and minor cannabinoid receptors, NAE’s are also known to exert a range of indirect effects. For example, LEA, PEA and OEA all inhibit levels of the FAAH enzyme that is responsible for degrading anandamide itself, and thus can effectively increase levels of anandamide in tissues over time.
N-alkylamides are a similar but less well-researched class of cannabimimetic compounds that have been shown to exert selective effects on the CB2-receptors, and have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects similar to anandamide.
This important terpene is found in cannabis, and its oxide (which forms on contact with air) is the compound detected by drug-sniffing dogs! B-caryophyllene has been shown to act as a full agonist of the CB2-receptor (in the body), although it does not act on the CB1-receptor (in the brain).
It has also been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in mice, but not in mice bred to lack CB2-receptors—showing that this biological activity is exerted via the receptors themselves.
Salvinorin A is the main component of the psychoactive plant species Salvia divinorum. Unusually for a hallucinogenic plant compound, salvinorin A is a terpenoid, not an alkaloid like mescaline, psilocybin and DMT. Furthermore, it is a dissociative, rather than a classic hallucinogen.
Interestingly, it seems that salvinorin A does not interact with the classic cannabinoid receptors, but in fact interacts with a putative third cannabinoid receptor that apparently forms only in inflammatory conditions, and which also acts as a kappa-opioid receptor. The κ-opioid receptors are fundamental to pain regulation, and are also the principal target of most hallucinatory compounds.
Salvinorin A is much rarer, and appears to only be found in high quantities in S. divinorum itself. However, there are indications that other sage species may also contain traces of the compound itself, or closely related molecules.
The Chinese rhododendron has been shown to contain CBC or related compounds.
Another very important terpene found in cannabis, and one that is also a major constituent of the essential oil of hops (Humulus lupulis). Although it is not thought that myrcene directly acts on the cannabinoid receptors, it is now known that its biological activity alters the psychoactive effect of THC.
Myrcene is known to be present in high levels in strains that exert a ‘stoney’ or ‘couchlock’ effect on the user. The sedative effects of myrcene-containing plants such as hops and verbena have been known for millennia, and it is now thought that the sedative effect is due to myrcene’s ability to agonise (activate) the opioid receptors (studies have shown that the opioid antagonist naxalone blocks myrcene’s effects, suggesting that myrcene is an agonist).
Thus, although myrcene isn’t typically classed as a cannabinoid in the currently existing scientific literature, it certainly affects the subjective experience of the cannabis ‘high’. Further research will no doubt determine the exact nature of the link; presently, while testing labs such as Steep Hill Halent in California have been collecting data on the association for years, no formal studies have as yet been conducted.
Plants that produce ‘cannabimimetic’ compounds
First off, there are abundant plant sources of terpenes such as β-caryophyllene and myrcene, although of course, some sources are better than others. Myrcene is found in extremely high concentrations in hop oil, making up almost 80% of the extracted volume in some varieties, and is also found in high levels in mangoes, lemongrass, thyme, and verbena.
B-caryophyllene is found in black pepper, cloves, rosemary, hops, caraway, oregano, basil, lavender, cinnamon, and many more plant species. In most of these species, β-caryophyllene is a major constituent of the essential oil (comprising 20% in some hop species).
CBD-like compounds were recently discovered in flax seeds.
In time, the list of plants that can safely be said to contain cannabimimetic compounds will no doubt expand dramatically, as we continue to find compounds capable of acting on the EC system.
But do any plants produce classical cannabinoids, other than cannabis?
Up until very recently indeed, it seemed that the cannabis plant was unique in producing the true, classic cannabinoids. However, this conventional wisdom appears to have been turned on its head with the discovery in 2012 that flax (linseed) seeds produce cannabidiol (CBD). Or at least, that they produce cannabinoid-like compounds very similar to CBD, which appear to have similar anti-inflammatory effects.
However, there is in fact a much earlier piece of research suggesting that the compound cannabigerol (CBG) and its precursor cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) are present in a South African herb, and a more recent (2011) study suggesting that cannabichromene (CBC) and some related compounds are present in Chinese rhododendron.
Edited and adapted and updated 2017. With thanks to Seshata 2015 online.
Herbactive Cannabis Sativa CBD Tincture
This is a Herbactive tincture made from the bud and leaf of the strain of Cannabis plant that is used to make our CBD Oil concentrate. That is to say, our Cannabis Tincture has nothing to do with the regular (and illegal) marajuana, skunk, or any other variety of grass that if smoked would make you high. Herbactive Cannabis CBD Tincture is a strong tincture of the CBD plant’s upper budding parts. It is of the highest quality, derived from a source I know and is verified. It is frequently tested because of its source of oil. This tincture is included in many of our tonics e.g in SleepMore to support the relaxing effects, in WorryLess to enhance the anti-anxiety action, in PlainLess Joints Tonic to help with joint pain and healing, etc. The tincture itself can be purchased from Herbactive’s online store.
For interest and as comparative information the following data is given regarding the Chinese herbal medicine Huo Ma Ren
Chinese name: Huo Ma Ren
Cannabis Seed Tincture (zero or near-zero CBDs)
Herbactive has Cannabis Seed Tincture made from Chinese denatured cannabis seeds. This has zero THC or CBD. NB Do not confuse this extract with the CBD Oil Herbactive supplies, see above.
The action of Cannabis seed tincture is as follows:
- Cannabis sativa (Hemp, Cannabis seed, Huo Ma Ren, Chinese herbal medicine) –
- Taste: Sweet, neutral.
- Meridian: SP ST LI.
- Action: Aperient/emollient.
- Use: Constipation of the debilitated or aged person. Gentle laxative, increases peristalsis; lowers BP.
Nutritional Information – Organic Hemp (cannabis) Seed Oil
|Typical nutritional values||per 100g||per Tablespoon (10g serving)|
|Energy||3700 kJ/900 kcal|
|Protein||0.0 g||0.0 g|
|Carbohydrate||0.0 g||0.0 g|
|-of which Sugar||0.0 g||0.0 g|
|Fat||100.0 g||10.0 g|
|-of which Saturates||9.2 g||0.9 g|
|-of which Monounsaturates||12.8 g||1.3 g|
|—of which Omega 9||12.3 g||1.2 g|
|-of which Polyunsaturates||78.0 g||7.8 g|
|—of which Omega 3||18.7 g||1.9 g|
|—of which Omega 6||56.6 g||5.7 g|
|—–of which Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA)||3.3 g||330 mg|
|–of which Cholesterol||0.0 g||0.0 g|
|Fibre||0.0 g||0.0 g|
|Sodium||0.0 g||0.0 g|
Recommended Supportive Health Information for Serious Illness :
Caisse – ACT
WormLess Anti-parasitic Method
Adaptogenic (herbal blood cleanser)
You can buy specific tinctures for your health needs (to enhance your immune system and help improve the protection and prevention of cancer taking hold in the body): Astragalus, Cancer Bush (Sutherlandia), Mistletoe (Viscum), Curcuma (Turmeric), Baikal, Wireweed, Barbata, Echinacea, Vinca, Sweet Violet, etc. see and order from our products and prices page